I use Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro to post-process my photos, although generally it is pretty straightforward:
1. Convert from raw -- adjusting white balance, exposure, contrast, etc. in the raw converter
2. Sometimes use PTLens to get rid of lens distortion
3. Sometimes level the horizon
4. Sometimes crop
5. Possibly further adjustments of color balance, saturation, contrast, shadows/highlights, etc.
Of course, if there are any dust spots I will clone them out. Occasionally, but not often, I might clone out some small object if it really hurts the image. Occasionally, I'll make a mask, work with layers, etc., but mostly that is more work than I want to do on an image so do it only on rare images.
Something that some people don't seem to realize is that even with film there was usually post-processing. Many famous photographers of the past spent a lot of time (or had their master printmaker do it) choosing how to develop the film, how to make the print, etc. Even the run of the mill person using color negative film and dropping it off to get developed got a post-processed print back. Shooting slide film was more "pure" *if* you just projected it, but even that involved choosing which slide film to use based on what "look" you wanted. If you make a print from the slide film then, again, choices can be made.